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Junction Grammar (JG for short) is a theory and model of language created in the late 1960s as an alternative to Transformational Generative Grammar.  It was exploited during the 1970s as the basis for research and development in computer-assisted translation at Brigham Young University.[1] In conjunction with that activity, because the model was classroom-friendly and its method of diagramming sentences was intuitive, JG was introduced to students locally as well as abroad in such far-flung climes as Brazil and South Korea. JG subsequently served as the foundation for a variety of additional natural-language software applications, including author identification, linguistic maturity testing, and writing-skills assessment.[2] 

A schematic of the Junction Grammar Model

More recently, JG has been enlisted as the backbone of Language Included™, a forthcoming educational series that pioneers the teaching of grammar and writing skills in tandem with language structure.[3]

Illustration from Language Included™
Relative modifiers ‘interjoin’ to their heads in JG

LANGUAGE in Capital Letters (LICL for short) is a comprehensive model of language (in the generic sense) that couples structuring in the material world with the structures deployed in speech, writing and mathematics.  LICL is essentially an upgrade to JG that reflects the development and expansion of the model in recent years to more fully encompass sensory input and mental modeling.[4] 

Mental Modeling in LICL seeks to reconcile mutually resistance codifications.

Check out the Millett-Lonsdale proposal for Expanding Tree Adjoining Grammar to Create Junction Grammar Trees.

  • For more information on the rationale of Junction Grammar and the circumstances surrounding its birth, click Origins here or on the menu bar on the left.
  • To access the archive of articles, click Article Archive here or on the menu bar.
  • Those desiring to comment on topics raised by the articles are invited to participate in the FORUM.
  •  All visitors are invited to make themselves known via the Guest Book. We extend a special invitation to students of Junction Grammar (present or past) to make known their whereabouts and activities.
  • The collection of articles posted here is not closed. Additional materials will be added as time and resources permit. Persons desiring to propose additions may may do so by submitting articles for review to <>.
  • Click BYU for an account of its role in making this web site possible.

 [1] Click here for a report on one aspect of early JG-based computer-assisted translation R&D.

 [2] Reference is made to the WordMAP Writing Aids and Assessment System (WordMAP I-II-III™). See, for example, H.M. Breland and E.G. Lytle, “Computer-assisted writing skill assessment using WordMAP.” Available online here.

 [3] Ronald M. Millett and Eldon G. Lytle, LANGUAGE INCLUDED. Published in e-book format by Linguistic Technologies Inc., Las Vegas, Nevada. Available online here.

 [4] Eldon G. Lytle, LANGUAGE in Capital Letters. (Las Vegas, NV: LingTech, 2003). Pdf edition available for download at

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